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The Last Mughal

The Last Mughal

by | History

آخری مُغل 

یہ ۱۲۷۳ ہجری رمضان المبارک کی۱۶ تاریخ ہے، شہرِ دہلی میں عیسوی کے اعتبار سے ۱۱ مئی ۱۸۵۷ کا یہ دن اپنے اعتبار سے گرم اور خُشک ہے۔ موسم گرما اپنے عروج کی طرف گامزن ہے۔ طلوعِ آفتاب کے بعد صبح سات بجے  کے قریب مغل بادشاہ بہادر شاہ ظفر  لال قلعے  میں ندی کے کنارے تسبیح خانے میں اشراق کی نماز پڑھ رہے ہیں۔ اسی دوران ان کو اپنے بائیں جانب دریا ئے جمنا کے پیچھے، کشتیوں کے لئے بنائے گئےپُل کے پچھلے کنارے پرٹُول ہاؤس سے دھوئیں کے بادل اُٹھتے دکھائی دیتے ہیں۔یہ منظر دیکھ کر بہادر شاہ ظفر میر فتح علی کو زور دار آواز سے مخاطب کرتے ہیں اور اس کے ساتھ ہی لال قلعے سے ایک ہرکارہ ٹول ہاؤس کی جانب نہایت برق رفتاری سے روانہ ہوتا ہے تا کہ معلوم کیا جا سکے کہ آخر یہ دھواں کس وجہ سے اُٹھ رہا ہے؟ ہرکارہ واپس آ کر بادشاہ کو آگاہ کرتا ہے کہ وہ ابھی راستے میں ہی تھا کہ وہ کیا دیکھتا ہے کہ انگریزی فوج کی وردی میں ملبوس کچھ ہندوستانی سوار برہنہ تلواروں کے ساتھ دریائے جمنا کا پل عبور کر چکے ہیں اور انھوں نے دریا کے مشرقی کنارے پر واقع ٹول ہاؤس کو لوٹنے کے بعد آگ لگا دی ہے۔یہ سن کر بادشاہ ظفر شہر اور قلعے کے تمام دروازے بند کرنے کا فرمان جاری کرتے ہیں ۔

 

Ghulam Ali Khan Bahadur Shah II Enthroned

شام کے وقت ان باغیوں کا سربراہ قلعے میں بادشاہ ظفر کے پاس حاضر ہوتا ہے اور انگریز وں کے خلاف بغاوت کو ایک مکمل جنگ کا روپ دینے کے لئے بادشہ ظفر کی سرپرستی کے لئے درخواست کرتا ہے لیکن بادشاہ نہایت پریشانی کے عالم میں فوری کوئی فیصلہ نہیں کر سکتے اور وزیر اعظیم احسان اللہ خاں باغیوں کے سربراہ سے یہ کہتے ہیں کہ ہمارے پاس کون سا خزانہ ہے کہ آپ کو تنخواہ پر انگریزوں کے خلاف مدد فراہم کریں۔ لیکن بالاخر بادر شاہ ظفر  نے ان باغیوں کی سرپرستی قبول کر لی۔

اُس دَور کے دہلی کالج کے ایک  متحرک طالبِ علم موہن لال کشمیر ی نے ان تمام تاریخی وا قعات کے متعلق  یہ بات بڑے وثوق سے لکھی:

’’ میں نے کبھی دہلی کے کسی مقامی یا بیرونی مستند ذرائع سے یہ نہیں سنا تھا کہ بادشاہ ظفر بغاوت کرنے والوں سے رابطے میں تھا اس سے قبل کہ ان کے ملک میں باغی کاروائی شروع کردیں۔ لیکن اس کے بعد جب شرپسندمحل اور شہر پر مکمل قابض ہوگئے۔ انہوں نے شہریوں پر اپنا اعتماد بحال کرنے کے لئے عسکری جلوس میں اپنی عظمت کو سامنے لانے کی بات کی۔ بادشاہ نے  اب پہلی بار خود کو  ایک بہادر اور ایک باقاعدہ عسکری گروہ کے ساتھ دیکھا ، جو اس کے مقاصد کی حمایت کرنے کے لئے تیار ہے۔ اس نے دیکھا کہ اس کے جلوس کے معاونین کے لئے آنے والی آبادی غمزدہ چہروں سے اس کی طرف نہیں دیکھ رہی ہے۔ اس کی وجہ یہ ہے کہ اس کے معاملات کے سازگار موڑ کو رعایا کی ایک بڑی تعداد نے منظور کرلیا ہے۔ اس نے [برطانوی سلطنت پر] آفات کی خبریں سنی۔یہاں بادشاہ ظفر کو غلط اطلاعات موصول ہوئی کہ بر طانوی افواج دوسرے محاذوں پر سرگرمِ جنگ ہیں اور برطانیہ میں جاری سیاسی حالات اس بات کی اجازت نہیں دیتے کہ وہ ہندوستان کی اِس تازہ بغاوت کا قلع قمع کرنے کے لئے مزید کمک بھیجیں۔ ممبئی اور دکن میں بھی بغاوت ہوئی تھی۔ ان تمام چیزوں  کو دیکھتے ہوئےبہادر شاہ  ظفر نے سمجھا کہ وہ اپنی زندگی کے آخری ایام میں  شایدعظیم تمیوری سلطنت کی بحالی کے لئےہی پیدا ہوا ہے۔

Bahadur Shah II of India

 

اگلے دن ۱۲مئی کی صبح دلی انگریزوں سے پوری طرح خالی ہو چکی تھی لیکن چند انگریز خواتین نے قلعے کے باورچی خانے کے پاس کچھ کمروں میں پناہ لے رکھی تھی۔ باغیوں نے بادشاہ کی مخالفت کے باوجود ان سب کو قتل کر دیا۔

اس سب کا آغاز۱۰  مئی ۱۸۵۷ کو میرٹھ  چھاؤنی میں اس وقت ہوا جب بنگال لانسر کے سپاہیوں نے بغاوت کر کے دلی کی جانب کوچ کیا تھا۔ ۱۸۵۷کے واقعات پر انتہائی اہم اورمعروف تاریخ دان رعنا صفوی لکھتی  ہیں:

 

ایسی بندوقیں ایسٹ کمپنی کے فوجیوں کے لئے آئی تھیں جس کے کارتوسوں کو دانتوں سے کاٹ کر بندوق میں بھرنا پڑتا تھا۔ اس زمانے میں یہ کہا جا رہا تھا کہ اس کے اندر گائے کی اور خنزیر کی چربی ہے لہٰذا جو مسلمان تھے وہ بھی ان کو چھونے سے مانع تھے اور ہندو بھی ان کو چھونے سے کترا رہے تھے۔

اس کے علاوہ مزید کئی اسباب تھے کہ فوجیوں کو سمندر پار لڑائی کے لیے بھیجا جا رہا ہے۔ تو اس بات پر ہندوؤں میں کھلبلی مچ گئی کیونکہ برہمنوں کا یہ عقیدہ ہے کہ پانی یعنی سمندر پار کر لیا تو ان کی ذات ختم ہو جاتی ہے۔ مزید یہ کہ ہندو فوجیوں کی ترقی بھی صرف ایک حد تک ہوتی تھی۔ ہندوستانی سپاہی اپنے  صوبے دار سے آگے نہیں ترقی پا سکتے تھے۔ اس طرح کی ان کی بہت ساری شکایات تھیں جو میرٹھ سے اُٹھنے والی آگ کا پیش خیمہ ثابت ہوئیں اور جس نے آہستہ آہستہ پورے ہندوستان کو اپنی لپیٹ میں لے لیا۔

کچھ لوگوں نے اسے غدر کہا تو کچھ نے جنگ آزادی کا نام دیا۔ کچھ دنوں کے بعد ہی باغی تتر بتر ہونے لگے اور دلی سے جان بچا کر جانے والوں انگریزوں نے واپسی کی۔ انبالہ سے آنے والے فوجیوں نے نہایت زوردار حملے کئے اور پھر ۱۰ جون ۱۸۵۷ کی صبح انگریزوں کی توپوں کا رُخ لال قلعہ اور دلی شہر کے جانب کردیا گیا۔ گولہ باری شروع ہوئی. لہذا دہلی کے لوگ اپنی چھتوں پر جا بیٹھے ، جبکہ ‘بادشاہ اور شاہی خاندان محل کیے سب سے بلند جگہ پر اپنی نشستیں قلعے کی دیواروں میں موجود سوراخوں سے شہر پر گولہ باری کا نظارہ کرنے لگے۔ اُس وقت جون کی گرمی اپنے عروج پر تھی اور ہر رات توپوں کی گولہ باری سے ہونے والی روشنی میں  لوگ  اپنے سائے دیکھتے تھے۔ اب کیا تھا، بہادر شاہ ظفر کو نظر آ چکا تھا کہ اب دلی اور ان کی نسل در نسل چلنے والی مغلیہ سلطنت اپنے انجام کی جانب گامزن ہے ۔جنرل نکلسن کی قیادت میں انگریز افواج نے چار ماہ تک دلی کا محاصرہ کیا اور بلآخر ۱۸ ستمبر ۱۸۵۷  کو درگاہ حضرت خواجہ نظام الدین اولیاؒ سے حاضری دے کر لوٹتے وقت بہادر شاہ ظفر کو گرفتار کر لیا گیا اور یوں ۱۵۲۶ سے شروع ہونے والی سلطنتِ مغلیہ کی داستان اپنے انجام کو پہنچی۔

Capture of King of Delhi Bahadur Shah Zafar

وہ ہندوستان کا آخری مغل بادشاہ ثابت ہوئے۔بادشاہ ظفر اپنے والد اکبر شاہ ثانی  کے بعد ۱۸۳۸ میں ۶۰ سال کی عمر میں تخت نشیں ہوئے تھے۔وہ ایک  شاعر اور خطاط ہونے کے ساتھ ساتھ،ایک نفیس شخصیت کے مالک تھے۔تاریخی شواہد سے یہ بات پوری طرح ثابت تھے ہے بادشاہ ظفر کا دربار ہر لحاظ سے ایک غیر معمولی نفیس ثقافتی دربار تھا جس میں فنونِ لطیفہ کے ماہرین مسلم و غیر مسلم موجود تھے۔ انھیں شاعری سے لگاؤ تھا اور خود بھی ایک بلند پایہ شاعر تھے۔ اُستاد ابراہیم ذوقؔ سے شرفِ تلمذ رکھنے کی وجہ سے اُستاد ذؔوق ملک الشعرا کے درجہ پر تا حیات قائم رہے۔ ان کی وفات کے بعد بہادر شاہ ظفر نے مرزا اسد اللہ خاں غالبؔ کو ملک الشعرا اور اپنا استاد منتخب کیا۔ بہادر شاہ ظفر کی تمام شخصی خوبیوں کے باوجود بھی یہ سوال آج بھی ذہنوں میں اُبھرتا ہے کہ آخر ان کے دور میں ہی سلطنت مغلیہ کا خاتمہ کیوں ہوا؟

Ghulam Ali Khan

اس کے زوال کے  مخلتف اسباب ہیں اور تاریخ دانوں نے تحقیق کے ساتھ مختلف اسباب پر زور دیا ہے جس میں سے غیر مسلم محققین اور مورخوں نے اس بات پر زو ر دیا ہے کہ اورنگ زیب عالمگیر نے اسلامی شرعی نظام کے نفاذ کے لئے جس طرح کے سخت اقدامت کئے اور غیر مسلموں کے ساتھ ناروا سلوک رکھا وہ آنے والے ادوار میں مغلوں کے زوال کا سبب بنا۔لیکن اس کے بر عکس دیگر اسباب بھی پورے دلائل کے ساتھ موجود ہیں۔لیکن بہادر اہ ظفر کو ایک ایسی کشتی ملی تھی جس کے تقریبا ہر کونے میں سوراخ تھا اور اس کے لئے ان سوراخوں کو بند کرنا ممکن نہ ہوا اور پھر میرٹھ سے اُٹھنے والی بغاوت کی حمایت کا فیصلہ مغلیہ سلطنت کے تابوت میں آخری کیل ثابت ہوا۔ مغلیہ خاندان کے اِس آخری فرمانروا پر مقدمہ چلا کے اُسے برما کے شہر رنگون میں جلا وطنی کی زندگی گُزارنے پر مجبور کر دیا گیا۔۷ نومبر ۱۸۶۲کو ابوالمظفر سراج الدین محمد بہادر شاه غازی المعروف ظفر نے اپنے وطن سے دُور رنگون کی ایک چار دیواری مین آخری سانسیں لیں اور وہیں سپردِ خاک ہوئے۔ وطن سے دُوری کا غم اُس آخری مغل بادشاہ کے اِس معروف شعر میں ابھی تک محسوس کیا جاتا ہے:

کتنا ہے بدنصیب ظفر دفن کے لئے
دو گز زمین بھی نہ ملی کوئے یار میں

 

References:

  • The Last Mughal The Fall of a Dynasty, Delhi 1857 By William Dalrymple
  • Sarvar ul-Mulk, Autobiography of Nawab Server ul-Mulk Bahadur, trans, from the Urdu by his son, Nawab Jiwan Yar JungBahadur, London, 1903
  • Shahjahanabad: The Living City of Old Delhi By Rana Safwi

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